Nene Valley Pottery Distribution
The colour coated pottery and mortaria produced in the lower Nene Valley were widely traded across Britain from the mid-second to the end of the fourth centuries.
Distribution of Nene Valley colour-coated wares in Britain (after P Tyres base map)
Distribution of Nene Valley mortaria in Britain (after P Tyers base map)
An Evolving Industry
Pottery production long predates the Roman period but before then it was largely undertaken on a small scale for local use. Coarse hand thrown products were produced using temporary clamp kilns. The Black Burnished Romano-British wares are a continuation of this tradition.
There had been some import of Samian and other fine continental table wares in advance of the invasion and this accelerated rapidly during the later first century. The initial demand would have been driven primarily by the military, and they were also the first to promote larger-scale local production – as seen for example at Longthorpe.
As Roman eating and food preparation habits were increasingly adopted, so demand for more specialised tableware, mortaria and cheese presses multiplied. The Nene Valley industry exploited this opportunity from the mid second century. Products followed military supply routes as is evidenced by pottery found along Hadrian’s Wall. Pottery was also supplied to settled areas such as the south-east and midlands; again the maps above point to the importance of sea and river transport. As the British potteries increased their scale and sophistication so the level of continental imports diminished.
During the third century the capability to produce the more refined products seems to have become more dispersed and production broadens away from the urban and military centres. Most important of the new rural centres of production was Oxford with its own colour coat and parchment wares; in addition, other clusters developed including the New Forest (which dominated Wessex colour coat), Hadham in East Anglia and Crambeck in Yorkshire.
Nene Valley production was probably most extensive during the 3rd century prior to the expansion of the Oxfordshire industry, although the ware was still the most dominant in eastern England into the late 4th century, partly due to diversification into production of ‘coarse ware’ forms.
Throughout the period most centres continued to produce grey or black burnished wares for everyday use alongside their finer wares. However it was the more decorative and more specialised forms which were most likely to be traded over longer distances.
Lower Nene Valley Pottery on the Northern Frontiers of Roman Britain
Paul Bidwell is a specialist on the archaeology of Roman Britain. From 1987 to 2013 he led a series of projects which involved the excavation and interpretation of the Roman fort-sites at South Shields (Arbeia) and Wallsend (Segedunum). The NVAT is grateful for this article which provides insights into the evolution and distribution of Nene Valley pottery.