Nene Valley Roman Potteries

The potteries of the lower Nene Valley are concentrated on the town and suburbs of Durobrivae between Water Newton and Castor, with a further cluster close to the river near modern day Stibbington. 

potteries-map-b.jpg

The list below of known potteries in the lower Nene valley as of 2018 was originally compiled by Vivien Swan and more recently updated by the Study Group for Roman Pottery. For consistency, site names have been retained even where they are repetitive or potentially misleading to those familiar with the area. An interactive version of the above map is available at https://romankilns.net/


Many of the 90 or so kilns have been revealed as a result of road building or construction. Others at Durobrivae and Normangate field have been suggested by magnetometry survey. It is likely that many more remain undiscovered.


At least one of the kilns at Water Newton was active before the end of the first century manufacturing coarse jars but also some platters imitating Gallo-Belgic types. We also know there was early production associated with the fort at Longthorpe. However, the major growth came in the second half of the second century, with large-scale production continuing through to the end of the fourth. 


The potteries were positioned close to the River Nene. This was probably associated with use of the river to bring materials (clay and large quantities of wood from west of Wansford), and with the onward transport of the finished products which would have been too fragile for bulk transport by road. That said, the potteries were also close to the line of Ermine Street so the importance of road connections cannot be dismissed.


The clay used to provide the classic white fabric with few inclusions was from the Upper Estuarine deposits which are in close proximity to Stibbington, Castor and Water Newton. The potteries at Stanground appear to have also made used of the Oxford clays which occur nearby. 

clay-sources-cooper-colour.jpg

Upper Estuarine Clay Deposits (after Nick Cooper et al)

The typical Nene Valley kilns are circular in plan and of updraught type. A flue led into the lower part of the cylindrical kiln from a stoke-hole. Fire-bars of baked clay to carry the pottery would radiate from a central tongue-like pedestal to a ledge around the kiln wall. Walls might be constructed entirely of clay, pre-fired clay blocks, or clay-lined stone. A temporary dome of clay and straw (or grass) would have been built over the loaded kiln, pierced by vents to allow a through draught. The kilns varied in size but the larger ones had a diameter of about 1.5 meters. This would provide a batch capacity of as many as 500 pots.

Water Newton / Durobrivae

WATER NEWTON (1): Billing Brook, Area 2
Grid Reference: TL11619682
Location: Adjacent to Billing Brook
Date & Circumstances of Record: 1957; A1 road-widening
Recorded by: E Greenfield
Features and Finds: kiln-wasters in ditch; well; oven-base (assumed to relate to pottery production)


WATER NEWTON (2): W of Water Newton Bridge, Area 3
Grid Reference: TL11549686
Location: 100m from Billing Brook
Date & Circumstances of Record: 1958; A1 road-widening
Recorded by: B R Hartley and J P Gillam
Four Kilns:

Kiln A (Phase I)

Type: F5: large, circular, clay-lined 

Kiln A (Phase II)

Type: F6: shell of Phase I chamber reused, with new flue at 90º to Phase I flue (now at back of kiln) packed with stones and over-plastered with clay on kiln-interior; bar-sockets of Phase I plugged with clay. Residue of final kiln-load in situ, with flat stones used oven-floor; many grass-marked 'dome plates' in stokehole.

Kiln B

Type: F5 or 6: large, circular, of clay reinforced with several stakes; furnace-bottom unlined. Site finds included scribed and stamped moulds for making imitations of decorated samian bowls (Dr. 37) and aniron modelling tool

Kiln C

Type: F5 or 6: circular-oval, clay-lined (lower part only survived). Slightly later than Kiln B with which it shared a stoke hole. 

Associated Pottery: Nene Valley colour-coated wares, incl. necked jars of local type, indented beakers, some decorated with barbotine scrolls or scales, bag-beakers (with plain or cornice-rim) decorated with barbotine foliage or hunting scenes, bowls and dishes imitating samian forms (Dr. 37, 79). Date of pottery: c. 200-220

water-newton-kilnc-hartley.jpg

Cracked pottery in abandoned Kiln C

WATER NEWTON (3): W of Water Newton Bridge and S of A1 Road
Grid Reference: TL11479684
Location: Billing Brook approx 200 m SE
Date & Circumstances of Record: 1820s; limited digging
Recorded by: E T Artis
Kilns: At least 2 probable kilns (no details survive)
Pottery: Probably Nene Valley wares (no details survive)

WATER NEWTON (4): E of Coneygree Field
Grid Reference: TL11929705 & TL11949707
Location: Within walled town
Date & Circumstances of Record: 1820s; limited digging
Recorded by: E T Artis
Kilns: Two adjacent locations mapped (no details survive)
Pottery: Probably Nene Valley wares (no details survive)

WATER NEWTON (5): Coneygree Field (South)
Grid Reference: TL11479712 & TL11489709 & TL11449708
Location: Billing Brook approx 250 m to east
Date & Circumstances of Record: 1820s; limited digging, surface observation
Recorded by: E T Artis, G Wyman Abbott and J W Bodger
Kilns: Three adjacent locations mapped (no details survive)
Pottery: Probably Nene Valley wares (no details survive)

WATER NEWTON (6): Coneygree Field (North)
Grid Reference: TL11579727 & TL11529725 & TL11549722
Location: Billing Brook approx 250 m to east
Date & Circumstances of Record: 1820s; limited digging
Recorded by: E T Artis
Kilns: Four or 5 adjacent locations mapped (no details survive)
Pottery: Probably Nene Valley wares (no details survive)

WATER NEWTON (7): Water Newton village, Area 5
Grid Reference: TL11079719
Location: River Nene 150m to north. Close to fort
Date & Circumstances of Record: 1959; digging a drainage trench; limited salvage excavation
Recorded by: G F Dakin
Kiln Type: F4 or 5: large, circular, clay-lined. 
Pottery: buff copies of Gallo-Belgic platters, rouletted butt-beakers, vessels with quoit-bases, and local-type necked bowls; calcite-gritted wide-mouthed jars. Date of pottery: first century

 

Normangate Field / Ailsworth / Castor

AILSWORTH (1): Normangate Field (South-West)
Grid Reference: TL11409787 & TL11479781
Location: River Nene 20m to S. Sites lay immediately W of Ermine Street Roman road and formed part of industrial extra-mural suburb of Durobrivae. Close to ‘Castor 1, 2, 3 & 4’
Date & Circumstances of Record: 1820s, limited digging. Also 1960s and 70s aerial photographs and 2018 mag survey
Recorded by: E T Artis
Kilns: Several kilns, some excavated (no details known); others suggested on air-photographs 
Pottery: Possible source of barbotine-figured beakers, indented beakers with scale-decoration, globular funnel-mouthed beakers with white painted decoration, white flasks, carinated cups. Mid 2nd to 4th century.

AILSWORTH (2): SW of Ailsworth village
Grid Reference: TL11229830 / TL11269835 / TL11159841 / TL11289848 / TL11249844 / TL11229851
Location: Pond adjacent, Splash Dike immediately S. 10 to 200m east of Ermine Street.
Date & Circumstances of Record: 1820s; limited digging. Also 1960s fieldwalking and 2018 mag survey
Recorded by: E T Artis
Kilns: Group of 6 kilns
Pottery: Variety of Nene Valley wares amongst Artis’ material not attributable to individual sites

AILSWORTH (3): S of Ailsworth village
Grid Reference: TL11689833
Location: Splash Dike within 150m to S. Close to ‘Castor 6’
Date & Circumstances of Record: 1820s; limited digging. Also 1960s fieldwalking and 2018 mag survey
Recorded by: E T Artis
Kilns: Probable kiln (no details survive)
Pottery: Variety of Nene Valley wares amongst Artis’ material not attributable to individual sites

CASTOR (1): Normangate Field (South)
Grid Reference: TL11499790 / TL11539781 / TL11549770 / TL11659764
Location: River Nene 200 to S. Ermine Street within 200m to W. Part of same cluster as ‘Castor 2, 3, 4 and Ailsworth 1’ making about 10 kilns in total
Date & Circumstances of Record: 1820s; limited digging
Recorded by: E T Artis
Kilns: Probable 4 kilns (no details survive)
Pottery: Variety of Nene Valley wares amongst Artis’ material not attributable to individual sites.

 

P40.Roman remains 1822 in normangate field.jpg

Plate 40 in the Durobrivae of Antoninus showing remains of a pottery in Normangate field, Castor, 1822

CASTOR (2): Normangate Field (South-east)
Grid Reference: TL11569782 / TL11559778
Location: River Nene 200 to S. Ermine Street within 200m to W. Part of same cluster as ‘Castor 1, 3, 4 and Ailsworth 1’ making about 10 kilns in total
Date & Circumstances of Record: 1968-70; ploughing, geophysical survey, limited selective excavation
Recorded by: G B Dannell and J P Wild
Kilns: 2 kilns (early and later phases). Later kiln - Type: F6: circular, clay-lined; adjacent workshops with small, oval and dumb-bell-shaped ovens
First Phase Pottery: Fine grey ‘Belgic’-derived jars with incised half-moon decoration on wide raised cordons. Date of pottery: first half of 2nd century
Second Phase Pottery: Nene Valley pinch-necked flagons and indented beakers with dark colour-coat. Date of pottery: shortly before mid 3rd century

normangate-dannell-wild-1969.jpg

Potter’s kiln behind the Workshops A and B

CASTOR (3): Normangate Field (East), immediately S of bend in NW/SE secondary Roman road
Grid Reference: TL11759781
Location: R Nene 250m to S. Part of same cluster as ‘Castor 1, 2, 4 and Ailsworth 1’ making about 10 kilns in total. Trackway immediately adjacent
Date & Circumstances of Record: 1962-63; geophysical survey, limited research/sampling excavation
Recorded by: G Webster
Features and Finds: Features associated with pottery industry and iron smelting including 2 wells; hearths; buildings. Early 2nd century pottery predating production of colour-coated wares

CASTOR (4): Normangate Field (North)
Grid Reference: TL11459795
Location: R Nene 400m to S. Part of same cluster as ‘Castor 1, 2, 3 and Ailsworth 1’ making about 10 kilns in total. 
Date & Circumstances of Record: 1961; geophysical survey, limited research/sampling excavation
Recorded by: B R Hartley
Features and Finds: Kiln of 'unusual rectangular structure with 2 parallel flues' (possible pottery drier). Two pits (c 140 to 160). Occupation associated with the pottery industry

CASTOR (5): Mill Hill
Grid Reference: TL127973
Location: River Nene 250m to SW
Date & Circumstances of Record: 1820s; limited digging
Recorded by: E T Artis
Kilns: 2 probable kilns (no details survive)
Pottery: Variety of Nene Valley wares amongst Artis’ material not attributable to individual sites.

CASTOR (6): SW of the Moats
Grid Reference: TL11799843
Location: Close to ‘Ailsworth 3’
Date & Circumstances of Record: 1967; ploughing, field-walking excavation
Recorded by: C Taylor
Features and Finds: Concentration of pottery, baked clay and 'kiln supports', building tile and stone, suggestive of kiln site with Roman building nearby
Pottery: Nene Valley wares

SUTTON/UPTON (1): Sutton Heath
Grid Reference: TF08840082
Location: About 1km N of Nene, close to White Water Brook. Ermine Street to E
Date & Circumstances of Record: 1820s; limited digging. Also field walking in 1960s
Recorded by: E T Artis
Kilns: 1 or 2 kilns (no details survive)
Features and Finds: Dense surface-scatter of large pieces of freshly broken pottery and stonework (from building) covering about 2 ha

 

Stibbington / Wansford / Yarwell / Sibson

SIBSON CUM STIBBINGTON (1): SW of Sibson village
Grid Reference: TL08619710
Location: R Nene 600m E
Date & Circumstances of Record: 
1820s: limited digging
Recorded by: E T Artis
Kilns: 2 kilns (no details survive)
Pottery: Variety of Nene Valley wares amongst Artis’ material not attributable to individual sites. 
Site now appears to be badly damaged by ploughing 

SIBSON CUM STIBBINGTON (2): Wansford Station 
Grid Reference: TL09029789; TL09029789; TL09029789; TL09029789; TL09029789; TL09029789
Location: R Nene 300m E
Date & Circumstances of Record: 
1840s(?): limited digging
1959: limited rescue excavation in advance of A1 road widening 
Recorded by: E T Artis; B R Hartley
Kiln: 6 kilns
Kiln A:

F5: large, circular, lined with stone, with skim of clay on interior. Nearby dump of white clay mixed with ironstone. Pottery from early 3rd century: grey cavetto-necked jars, cooking-pots, and dishes (Gillam 313).
Kiln B:

F6: very large, built of pre-fired clay blocks, curved to fit the circumference. Pottery from end 2nd or early 3rd century: brown colour-coated bag-beakers with crude barbotine scrolls or lattice, imitation samian bowls (Dr. 36), dishes, jugs, flagons with flanged neck, indented beakers and buff kitchen-wares.
Kiln C:

F5 or 6: large, circular, clay and stone-lined, with narrow, slightly rounded top of clay rim preserved.  Pottery: probably as Kiln D (removed by Artis's excavation).
Kiln D:

F5 or 6: circular, clay-lined, with evidence of re-lining. Kiln D cut into Kiln C. Pottery: grey wares inc. flanged bowls from late 3rd or first half 4th century.
Kiln E:

F5 or 6: large, pear-shaped, cut into natural limestone and over plastered with clay. Predates Kilns C and D. Large dump nearby of white clay mixed with ironstone. Pottery: colour-coated wares and jars, and bowls with stamped bosses; grey ware flanged bowls copying BB types. Late 3rd, first half 4th century.
Kiln F:

F5 or 6: circular, of curved pre-fired clay blocks (designed for kiln of larger diameter) bonded with clay. Pottery all removed by Artis excavation.

SIBSON CUM STIBBINGTON (2): Wansford Station, Sibson (field immediately to S)
Grid Reference: TL09259785
Location: R Nene 600m E
Date & Circumstances of Record: 1820s: limited digging
Recorded by: E T Artis
Kiln: No details. Kilns and buildings apparently lay within a large mound
Pottery: Probably Nene Valley wares (no details survive)

SIBSON CUM STIBBINGTON (2): 'Sibson', near railway, possibly near Sibson Station
Grid Reference: TL09259785 - not precisely located
Location: R Nene 600m E
Date & Circumstances of Record: 1844: digging a drain in connection with the building of the railway, limited exploratory digging
Recorded by: E T Artis
Kiln: F5 or 6: probably circular, lined with handmade pre-fired 'bricks' tempered with 'rye in the chaff' 
Products: Probably Nene Valley wares (no details survive). Apparently producing oxidized wares

SIBSON CUM STIBBINGTON (2): 'Woodgate Way' field, Sibson: in vicinity of Wansford Station
Grid Reference: TL0997 - not precisely located
Location: R Nene 600m E
Date & Circumstances of Record: 1846: limited exploratory digging
Recorded by: E T Artis
2 Kilns: 
Kiln 1:

Kiln Type: F5 or 6: roughly circular, clay-lined 
Kiln 2:

F5 or 6: oval, lined with clay incorporating potsherds and reused fragments of prefabricated blocks 
Products: Probably Nene Valley wares (no details survive). 

SIBSON CUM STIBBINGTON (3): NW of Wansford Station
Grid Reference: TL089981
Location: R Nene 600m E
Date & Circumstances of Record: 1820s: limited digging
Recorded by: E T Artis
Kiln: At least 2 kilns. No details survive
Pottery: Probably Nene Valley wares (no details survive)

SIBSON CUM STIBBINGTON (4): N of Wansford Station
Grid Reference: TL091983
Location: R Nene 150m E
Date & Circumstances of Record: 1820s: limited digging
Recorded by: E T Artis
Kiln: At least 2 kilns. No details survive
Pottery: Probably Nene Valley wares (no details survive)

SIBSON CUM STIBBINGTON (5): near Ship End Pits
Grid Reference: TL07909790
Location: R Nene 50m W (between Yarwell and Stibbington)
Date & Circumstances of Record: 1820s: limited digging
Recorded by: E T Artis
Kiln: At least 2 kilns. No details survive
Pottery: Probably Nene Valley wares (no details survive)


SIBSON CUM STIBBINGTON (6): 'Coney-graves field, Stibbington': near Stibbington School
Grid Reference: TL0898 – not precisely located 
Location: Ambiguity concerning Coney-graves’ name
Date & Circumstances of Record: 1846: limited digging
Recorded by: E T Artis
Kiln: 2 kilns – one of which was large (no details survive)
Pottery: Smaller kiln: 'mixed ware' (i.e. oxidized and reduced pottery); large kiln: reduced wares; mortaria (oxidized and reduced), imitation samian, flagons, or flasks with white painted scrolls; 'saucers… like… flower-pots'

SIBSON CUM STIBBINGTON (6): adjacent to Stibbington School
Grid Reference: TL08559865
Location: R Nene 700 m E
Date & Circumstances of Record: 1820s: limited digging
Recorded by: E T Artis
Kiln: At least 2 kilns (no details survive)
Pottery: Probably Nene Valley wares (no details survive)

SIBSON CUM STIBBINGTON (7): N of Stibbington School (Church Lane)
Grid Reference: TL08539879
Location: R Nene 700 m E, contemporary well immediately adjacent
Date & Circumstances of Record: 1969. Geophysical survey, limited advance-rescue excavation
Recorded by: M Aitken; G B Dannell and J P Wild
2 Kilns: 
Kiln W:

Type: F6: circular, built or prefabricated curved fired-clay blocks luted with clay; a semi-circular chamber, roughly built of prefabricated blocks luted with clay, was added to front of kiln-chamber 
Pottery: Nene Valley colour-coated castor boxes, imitation samian bowls (Dr. 31, 36, 37, 38), dog-dishes and flanged pie-dishes (copying BB types), flagons (some flanged) and small carinated bowls with white painted arches; painted parchment-ware bowls and flagons incl. face-mask jugs and buff-white mortaria with reeded flange. Date of pottery: first half of 4th century, probably post 325
Kiln G:

F6: circular, clay-lined. Workshop 3m to west included a large stone kick wheel 
Pottery: Nene Valley grey ware dog-dishes (Gillam 330, 331), local-type cooking-pots, and necked flasks, possibly also flagons and mortaria with reeded flange. Date of pottery: first half of 4th century, probably post 325


SIBSON CUM STIBBINGTON (8): NW of Stibbington School
Grid Reference: TL08439903
Location: R Nene 500 m N. Other unexcavated kilns in vicinity
Date & Circumstances of Record: 1957. Deep-ploughing; limited research excavation Recorded by: B R Hartley
3 Kilns: 
Kiln A:

Type F5 or 6: large, circular, clay-lined. Stone floored workshop of late 4th century built over kilns. Finds included face-mould for flagon-necks; pottery votive plaque; potter's tanged iron modelling-tool
Kiln B:

Type: F6: large, stone-lined, with skim of clay on interior; projecting, semi-circular, clay-lined 'fire-box' chamber later added to front of kiln in place of flue. Kiln B slightly post-dated Kiln A.
Pottery: Colour-coated Nene Valley wares incl. imitation samian (Dr. 31, 36, 38), carinated bowls with painted arches, flagons with moulded and painted face-masks, cream mortaria of 3 types (plain hooked flange, reeded flange and wall-sided); grey ware dishes (Gillam 313), local-type cavetto-necked jars and cordoned jars. Date of pottery: end of 3rd - early 4th century
Kiln C:

Unexcavated. Stoke hole shared with Kiln A
 

sibson-kilnb-hartley.jpg

Kiln B with part of earlier oven to right of scale (photo credit – G Webster)

SIBSON CUM STIBBINGTON (9): S of Stibbington Gravel Pits
Grid Reference: TL08559929; TL08609913
Location: R Nene 270m to N
Date & Circumstances of Record: ploughing; field-walking
Recorded by: E Standen (1964); NVRC (1970s/80s)
Kiln: Surface concentration of pottery and kiln furniture, suggestive of kiln sites

SIBSON CUM STIBBINGTON (10): Stibbington Gravel Pits
Site Name: Stibbington Gravel Pits
Grid Reference: TL08459941
Location: R Nene 100m to N
Date & Circumstances of Record: 1950s: gravel-digging; salvage collection of material
Recorded by: G Wyman Abbot
Site Features and Finds: Large quantity of pottery, mainly kiln-wasters, suggestive of kiln site (now destroyed); burials and 3rd to 4th-century coins in vicinity

YARWELL (1): Stonehill Quarries, Sulehay
Grid Reference: TL060991
Location: Stream 200m to SW. Close to road to Kings Cliffe
Date & Circumstances of Record: 1974: stone-quarrying; limited salvage excavation and observation
Recorded by: J Hadman and S Upex
Kiln: Type F6: pear-shaped, clay-lined 
Pottery: Nene Valley wares incl. wide-mouthed jars, cooking-pots (some lid-seated), jars with slashed cordons, 'dog-dishes', and castor boxes (may be a mixed group; not all associated pottery certainly contemporary). Date of pottery: late 2nd century (possibly with some earlier survivals) 

 

Alwalton / Chesterton

ALWALTON (1): not precisely located within the parish
Grid Reference: TL1395 – not precisely located
Date & Circumstances of Record: 1820s: limited digging
Recorded by: E T Artis
Kiln: No details survive
Pottery: Probably Nene Valley wares (no details survive)

CHESTERTON (1): E of Water Newton Bridge
Kiln Number: Area 1, Kiln P
Grid Reference: TL11809675
Location: Billing Brook 180m to W.  S of R Nene and immediately SW of Roman town of Durobrivae
Date & Circumstances of Record: 1958: projected road-widening, geophysical survey, limited selective excavation
Recorded by: G Webster
Two Kilns:
Kiln P:

Type: F6: circular (built in a construction trench), and lined with clay-bonded, pre-fired rectangular clay blocks, some cut in half, most with diagonal cross-lines lightly scored on surface. Kiln P lay immediately W of Kiln R.
Kiln R:

Type F5: large, circular/oval, of pre-fired rectangular clay blocks
Pottery: Nene Valley colour-coated pentice-moulded and funnel-mouthed globular beakers with thick, white painted scroll-decoration or rouletting; possibly also colour-coated flanged bowls and flagons with disc-top or double-moulded rim. Date of Pottery: late 3rd - early 4th century


Alwalton, Huntingdonshire: Alwalton (NEW)
Grid Reference: TL12809613
Location: S of Durobrivae, close to Ermine Street
Date & Circumstances of Record: 2002: field walking
Recorded by: P Middleton
Site Features and Finds: A quantity of Roman pottery, dome material and four fragmentary firebands were recovered, leaving no doubt that this is the site of a kiln. The kiln is thought to be an isolated example, located close to Ermine Street.

Orton Waterville: (NEW)
Grid Reference: TL139962
Location: Lynchwood Business Park. R Nene 100m to N
Date & Circumstances of Record: 1989: pre-development watching brief
Recorded by: I Meadows
Site Features and Finds: The remains include metalled yards, large stone packed post-holes and extended inhumations. There were also many ditches and pits and the base of a C1 kiln. The key-shaped outline of the kiln produced many small kiln bars and fragments of a single self-coloured vessel. Date of Pottery: 1st C

 

Stilton / Folksworth / Yaxley

YAXLEY (1): Cowbridge
Grid Reference: TL191922 / TL192918
Location: Two adjacent sites, close to waterway
Date & Circumstances of Record: 1955-6: ploughing; field-walking
Recorded by: E Standen
Site A Features and Finds: spread of pottery and fired clay kiln-debris. Pottery: C2 to C4 Nene Valley wares
Site B Features and Finds: large quantity of pottery, incl. wasters, with evidence for building nearby. Pottery: C2 to C4 Nene Valley wares

Stilton, Huntingdonshire: Stilton Dyke (NEW)
Grid Reference: TL16938984
Location: Fen edge W of Stilton and Ermine Street
Date & Circumstances of Record: 2006: Trial-trench evaluation (Time Team)
Recorded by: Wessex Archaeology
Kilns: Partial evidence for three kiln structures was excavated in situ, while further evidence for the ceramic superstructures and internal kiln furniture was also recovered. One may have been a tile kiln. Overall, the evidence is comparable with other kilns in the Lower Nene Valley
Pottery: High proportion of shell-tempered pottery wares. Indicative dates – mid 2nd to 4th century

Peterborough / Stanground / Park Farm


LONGTHORPE (1): West Longthorpe Haul Road, Orton Staunch
Grid Reference: TL163974
Location: Brook adjacent; R Nene 250m to S. The kilns lay 500m SE of Longthorpe vexillation-fortress and probably operated under military supervision
Date & Circumstances of Record: 1971-74: geophysical survey & rescue excavation in advance of construction
Recorded by: G B Dannell and J P Wild
Multiple Kilns
Kiln 1:

Type F6: roughly circular, clay-lined, semi-sunken. Kiln Interior type C. Pre-dates Kiln 2 which shared same stokehole. Stock-pile of clean, pale blue clay nearby
Kiln 2:

Type F6: small, roughly circular, clay-lined, semi-sunken. Interior type C. Pre-dated or partly overlapped with shallow-set adjacent Kiln 3, all of which again used the same stokehole
Pottery: Included flagons and cheese-presses in slightly gritty white/buff fabric. Date of pottery AD 50-65
Kiln 3:

Type B4: small, roughly circular or ovoid (some thinly lined with clay) 
Pottery: Pink-cream single and double-handled Hofheim-type flagons; small jars or beakers with neat cavetto, beaded cornice or everted rim (some roughcast), campanulate cups with 2 handles (Green 9), carinated bowls with reeded rim, small flanged mortaria, conical and dish-like cheese-presses, vessels related to butt-beakers, copies of samian forms (Dr. 15/17), large and medium-mouthed jars; red mica-dusted imitation Pompeian red-ware platters and lids; possibly also calcite-gritted storage and cooking-jars of local type. Date of Pottery: AD 50-65
Surface Built Kilns: Over 30 kilns possibly with walls constructed of turves. Little remained other than a circular reddened patch of gravel and a scatter of burnt clay

STANGROUND, SOUTH (1): Stanground Park Farm
Grid Reference: TL21539669
Location: King's Dyke (old course of R Nene) approx 100m to N
Date & Circumstances of Record: 1965: ploughing; geophysical survey; limited research excavation
Recorded by: M Aitken; B R Hartley
Kiln: Type F5 or 6: circular, lined with prefab. clay blocks (badly damaged by ploughing)
Pottery: Nene Valley colour-coated wares of relatively crude standard including thick-bodied barbotine-decorated beakers, flagons and grey plain-ware cooking-jars of local type. Date of pottery: early-mid C3

STANGROUND, SOUTH (1): Stanground Park Farm
Grid Reference: TL21559671
Location: King's Dyke (old course of R Nene) approx 80m to N
Date & Circumstances of Record: 1966-7: ploughing; geophysical survey; limited research excavation
Recorded by: M Aitken; G B Dannell and J P Wild
Two Kilns:
Kiln 1:

Type: F5 or 6: roughly circular, lined with pre-fired, rectangular clay blocks and repaired at front with clay and tile. 
Kiln 2:

Type F5 or 6: oval, lined with pre-fired, rectangular clay blocks
Pottery: Nene Valley grey ware shouldered jars, large indented beakers, dishes (Gillam 330); colour-coated rosette-stamped bowls, dishes and pedestal-beakers (some with name-stamp of potter Indixivixus) copying late Upper Rhineland samian types (Dr. 36, 37, 42, 53); colour-coated beakers, some with rouletting or barbotine scrolls and hunting scenes. Date of pottery: early-mid C3

STANGROUND, SOUTH (2): S of Stanground Sluice
Grid Reference: TL20849709
Location: King's Dyke (old course of R Nene) approx 150m to N
Date & Circumstances of Record: 1901-08: digging a trench; surface collection 
Recorded by: J F Whittaker et al.
Site Features and Finds: Much pottery incl. 2 fused stacks of wasters (pl 6) and kiln bars. Also remains of wharf and road covered with pottery suggesting kilns nearby
Pottery: Nene Valley indented beakers, cordoned beakers with stabbed-decoration

STANGROUND, NORTH (1): S of Sewage Farm
Grid Reference: TL20729807
Location: R Nene adjacent to S
Date & Circumstances of Record: 1907 & 1923. Surface collection; possible digging
Recorded by: G Wyman Abbot
Site Features and Finds: Pottery and 'wedge-shaped tiles' 

 

Oundle / Warmington / Papley

OUNDLE (1): E Side of town
Grid Reference: TL042882
Location: R Nene to NE and SW
Date & Circumstances of Record: 1854 
Recorded by: Mr Beal
Site Features and Finds: Pit containing bars and pottery. Probable kiln site

ASHTON (1): E of Railway Yard and A605 road
Grid Reference: TL048890
Location: R Nene approx 400m to W
Date & Circumstances of Record: 1978-79: proposed building of by-pass; advance rescue excavation
Recorded by: J A Hadman and S Upex
Three Kilns: Type: F?4: all kilns very small, oval, shallowly-set, unlined 
Pottery: Uncertain. Likely date c. AD30-60

WARMINGTON (1): W of Papley Lodge
Grid Reference: TL101888
Location: Stream 200m to N. South of Nene and on higher ground
Date & Circumstances of Record: 1969: cutting drainage ditches (pre 1969); field-walking 
Recorded by: J A Hadman 
Site Features and Finds: Surface scatter of pottery, bars, and limestone rubble. Tiles and pottery in drainage ditch. Probable kiln site


Ashton (Formerly Ashton Wold): Oundle Station Yard (NEW)
Grid Reference: TL04658910
Location: R Nene approx 400 m W. Close to ‘Ashton 1’ (3 kilns)
Date & Circumstances of Record: 1992: Trial Trench Evaluation 
Recorded by: Northamptonshire Archaeology
Site Features and Finds: Remains of circular Roman pottery kiln 1.3m in diameter; constructed from limestone blocks lined with mortar; kiln bars not in situ; backfilled with layers containing early C2nd pottery
Date of Pottery: Early 2nd C

 

Kiln Categorisation Used Above

 

Kiln Type F
A circular or oval sunken or semi-sunken kiln, with a single flue and (usually) a permanent clay lining to the kiln-chamber. Where the subsoil is clay, such kilns may occasionally be unlined below ground level.
Internal variations:

 

  1. No evidence for use of kiln-furniture, internal stacking aids, or a raised oven-floor. ie a single chambered kiln.

  2. Evidence for the use of temporary (portable) kiln-furniture at the bottom of the kiln chamber to aid stacking and heat circulation, but none for a raised oven-floor. ie a single chambered kiln.

  3. An integral permanent structural component or feature in the kiln-chamber to aid stacking and heat circulation, but no evidence for a raised oven-floor. ie a single chambered kiln.

  4. Temporary support(s) or furniture and a temporary (ie portable) raised oven-floor spanning all or most of the furnace-chamber.

  5. Permanent integral support(s) and a temporary raised oven-floor spanning all or most of the furnace-chamber.

  6. Permanent integral support(s) and a permanent raised oven-floor spanning all or most of the furnace-chamber.

  7. A permanent, self-supporting raised oven-floor. ie one lacking any special supportive structure.

Kiln type B
Evidence for a surface-built kiln (or a kiln sited in a very shallow depression) with a single flue and a temporary lining (eg of turf), indicated by a clearly defined area of burning. Temporary stacking furniture and/or a temporary raised oven-floor may have been used.
Internal variations:

 

  1. No evidence for use of kiln-furniture, internal stacking aids, or a raised oven-floor. ie a single chambered kiln.

  2. Evidence for the use of temporary (portable) kiln-furniture at the bottom of the kiln chamber to aid stacking and heat circulation, but none for a raised oven-floor. ie a single chambered kiln.

  3. An integral permanent structural component or feature in the kiln-chamber to aid stacking and heat circulation, but no evidence for a raised oven-floor. ie a single chambered kiln.

  4. Temporary support(s) or furniture and a temporary (ie portable) raised oven-floor spanning all or most of the furnace-chamber.

  5. Permanent integral support(s) and a temporary raised oven-floor spanning all or most of the furnace-chamber.

  6. Permanent integral support(s) and a permanent raised oven-floor spanning all or most of the furnace-chamber.

  7. A permanent, self-supporting raised oven-floor. Ie one lacking any special supportive structure.

Kiln Chamber (a)
Temporary, usually free-standing, prefabricated, portable pedestal(s), block(s), bollard(s) or other furniture which may or may not have supported a raised oven-floor.


Kiln chamber (c)
Permanent integral free-standing pedestal(s) or bollard(s) which may or may not have supported a raised oven-floor.


Kiln chamber (d)
A single permanent tongue or long pier, projecting from the centre back of the furnace-chamber and integral with the kiln structure, used to support a raised oven-floor.


Kiln chamber (k)
Small sockets or holes poked into the kiln-wall while still plastic in order to insert the ends of the bars of a raised oven floor.