The  Durobrivae of  Antoninus - Plate 42

Artis never completed the words to accompany his drawings. The images below include interpretations provided by modern day archaeology specialists.

Plate 42.1

The stem of a later Roman bone hair-pin. Unfortunately, the head is lost, but the swelling at the mid-point on the stem indicates that this is a form introduced around the middle of the second century, but particularly common in the later Roman period. Probably originally similar to Pl 41.18.

S  J Greep - Feb 2018

Plate 42.2

The stem of a broad Roman hair pin, probably of earlier Roman date to judge from the tapering stem. The head appears lost, but was almost certainly flat or with a simple point. All the features are  like those on Plate 42, no's 4 and 5.

S J  Greep - Feb 2018

Plate 42.3

Bone, sharpened to a point with a perforation for suspension. Almost certainly Roman, although simple implements like this occur in the pre and post Roman periods.

S.J. Greep - Feb 2018

Plate 42.4

One of two earlier Roman bone hair-pins with conical heads, collars beneath and straight tapering stems. These are common forms of the first and second centuries. Note the differences between these earlier roman types two, which were intended to stand proud of the hair and those with swelling mid shafts (like no 1 here and Pl 41.18) which were more functional, helping to keep the hair together, and reflect a change of hair styles in the middle of the second century AD.

S J Greep - Feb 2018

Plate 42.5

One of two earlier Roman bone hair-pins with conical heads, collars beneath and straight tapering stems. These are common forms of the first and second centuries. Note the differences between these earlier roman types two, which were intended to stand proud of the hair and those with swelling mid shafts (like no 1 here and Pl 41.18) which were more functional, helping to keep the hair together, and reflect a change of hair styles in the middle of the second century AD.

S J Greep - Feb 2018

Plate 42.6

Copper-alloy strip, with expanded oval terminal, tapering  along the rectangular (?) or D-shaped shaft to a pointed end,  which may  have been inserted into a handle.  Possibly a tool,  but the drawing seems to show a depression at the oval end which might suggest that this was a small spoon.

A Wardle - March 2019

Plate 42.7

The illustration suggests that this tool has a knife-like blade with parallel edge and back, a short tip, and a tapering tang which is stepped down from the blade. If so it is a most unusual form, and it is possible that this interpretation of the illustration is incorrect.

W H Manning - Jan 2019

Plate 42.8

Copper-alloy spoon. Small cosmetic spoon. Shallow oval spoon bowl with bead and reel decoration at the handle terminal. Assuming that the terminal is complete, this appears to  be  single spoon,  not part of a toilet set,  for which the shape of the bowl would be unusual.

A Wardle - March 2019

Plate 42.9

Red Deer antler tine, which, from the illustration, looks polished. There are two carved collars. It would appear to have had a perforation at the broader end, so almost certainly a handle for an iron tool, such as a knife. Antler tines were commonly used in this way throughout the Roman period.

S J Greep - Feb 2018

Plate 42.10

Copper-alloy tweezers. Pair of tweezers, made from a strip of copper alloy, folded to  form plain blades, apparently straight-sided, with in-curved terminals and almost certainly from a toilet ‘set’.  They belong to the group  defined as plain tweezers,  flared and straight-sided, by Eckardt and Crummy (2008, 148) in a major study of items used for  personal grooming.

 

Tweezers of this type range in size from 24 to 105mm (ibid) and are found in contexts from 1stto  4th century in date, with many in 1st century contexts.

Eckardt, H,  and Crummy, N,  2008 Styling the body in late Iron Age and Roman Britain: a contextual approach to toilet instruments, Monographies Instrumentum 36, Montagnac

A Wardle - March 2019

Plate 42.11

Copper-alloy ligula or toilet spoon. Plain round flat scoop set at an angle to a circular-sectioned handle, used to extract ointments or cosmetics from flasks or small containers.  They are common finds on Romano-British sites at all periods.

A Wardle - March 2019

Plate 42.12

Copper-alloy nail cleaner with bifid terminal, straight shaft with notched decoration below the circular suspension loop. 

 

This is part of a toilet set which would have comprised tweezers, an ear scoop or spoon and a nail cleaner. This belongs to Eckardt and Crummy’s group of plain nail-cleaners with straight-sided blades (2008, 130, fig 70), some of which have simple notching at the top of the shaft,  as here.

 

Context dates for this type cover the entire Roman period and the distribution is largely southern.

A Wardle - March 2019

Plate 42.13

Probably the head and part of the stem of a drill bit.  The squat nature of the head, although somewhat unusual, is known in other bits such as a fragment from the early Roman fort at Hod Hill (Manning 1985, 27, fig.12, B67). It is possible that it was turned using a cross-handle rather than a rotary drill.

W H Manning - Jan 2019

Plate 42.14

The elongated pyramidal head and fragment of the stem of a drill-bit.  This is the commonest form of Roman bit-head. The tip could have been a simple point, or, less probably,  diamond or spoon shaped.  Bits of this type are discussed and illustrated in Manning 1985, 26ff.

W H Manning - Jan 2019

Plate 42.15

The head and part of the stem of a drill-bit similar to, but with a shorter head than, No.14.

W H Manning - Jan 2019

Plate 42.16

Almost certainly a rake-tine, one of a series which will have been set in an elongated wooden block or clog with the tapering, and possibly broken, tang running through the clog with its tip turned over.  Such tines, which are quite common site-finds, are discussed in Manning 1985, 59.

W H Manning - Jan 2019

Plate 42.17

Large, tanged knife with a blade which is in the form of a quadrant.  The thickness of the neck of the tang may indicate that it was actually a neck which was not inserted into the handle rather than part of the tang. However, this would be unusual and the tang would have been extremely short unless it was broken.  More probably it is simply a much corroded tang.  Knives of this general type are known from a number of sites, including both Caerwent (Newport Museum) and Silchester (Reading Museum), although few appear to have been published.

W H Manning - Jan 2019

References

Manning, W. H. 1985:  Catalogue of the Romano-British Tools, Fittings and Weapons in the British Museum (London)

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